• editor@ijmra.in
  • ISSN[Online] : 2643-9875  ||  ISSN[Print] : 2643-9840


COVID19 Long Term Effects in Patients Treated with Chlorine Dioxide
1Manuel Aparicio-Alonso,2 Carlos A. Domínguez-Sánchez, 3Marina Banuet-Martínez
1,2,3Centro Médico Jurica,Querétaro,México
DOI : https://doi.org/10.47191/ijmra/v4-i8-14

Google Scholar Download Pdf

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) has generated widespread healthcare concerns and has overburdened healthcare institutions. As the number of COVID19 patients recovers, so does the frequency of reports of COVID19-like symptoms following discharge. A telephone survey with standardized questions was undertaken in which participants were asked if they had had any of 25 possible sequelae after being diagnosed with COVID19 and treated with a Chlorine Dioxide Solution (CDS). One hundred sixty-one people completed the survey. We discovered that rising age is a risk factor (OR = 1.035, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 1.004-1.069), and the odds of having any symptoms in moderate patients is 0.077 compared to mild patients (P = 0.003). It was predicted that 64.6 percent of patients treated with CDS for SARS-CoV-2 infection experienced an average of 3.41 long-term effects. There were no variations in the number of sequelae reported by sex, age, COVID19 severity, or therapy method. The five most prevalent manifestations of the 25 distinct long-term symptoms observed in this study were fatigue, hair loss, dyspnea, concentration problem, and sleep difficulties. In addition, individuals treated with multiple drugs (COVID19 conventional treatment plus a CDS) had 2.7 fewer cases of sequelae, and patients treated exclusively with CDS had 6.14 fewer incidences of long-term effects. People who get a CDS are 19% less likely to experience long-term health effects than patients who receive standard COVID19 therapy. According to the findings of this study, patients who receive a CDS have a reduced probability of developing sequelae. Furthermore, the incidence of long-term effects is lower in individuals treated exclusively with a CDS. The recent findings involving Chlorine Dioxide support the development of clinical studies to evaluate its efficacy in preventing the development of COVID19 long-term effects.


Chlorine Dioxide, Chronic COVID19, COVID19, Pandemic, Long-term effects, sequelae


1) Al-Jahdhami, Issa, Khalid Al-Naamani, and Adhra Al-Mawali. 2021. "The Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome (Long COVID)." Oman Medical Journal 36:e220.

2) Barman, Manash Pratim, Tousifur Rahman, Krishnarjun Bora, and Chandan Borgohain. 2020. "COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Recovery Time of Patients in India: A Pilot Study." Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews 14(5):1205–11.

3) Carfì, Angelo, Roberto Bernabei, and Francesco Landi. 2020. "Persistent Symptoms in Patients after Acute COVID-19." JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association 324(6):603–5.

4) Das, Karuna, Edward Lee, Rajvir Singh, Mushira Enani, Khalid Al Dossari, Klaus Van Gorkom, Sven Larsson, and Ruth Lange. 2017. "Follow-up Chest Radiographic Findings in Patients with MERS-CoV after Recovery." Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging 27:342–49.

5) Datta, Deblina, Amish Talwar, and James Lee. 2020. "A Proposed Framework and Timeline Ofthe Spectrum of Disease Due to SARS-CoV-2 Infection." JAMA 324(22):2251–52.

6) Dispinseri, Stefania, Massimiliano Secchi, Maria Franca Pirillo, Monica Tolazzi, Martina Borghi, Cristina Brigatti, Maria Laura De Angelis, Marco Baratella, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Giulietta Venturi, Francesca Sironi, Andrea Canitano, Ilaria Marzinotto, Cristina Tresoldi, Fabio Ciceri, Lorenzo Piemonti, Donatella Negri, Andrea Cara, Vito Lampasona, and Gabriella Scarlatti. 2021. "Neutralizing Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Symptomatic COVID-19 Is Persistent and Critical for Survival." Nature Communications 12(1):2670.

7) Greenhalgh, Trisha, Matthew Knight, Christine A'Court, Maria Buxton, and Laiba Husain. 2020. "Management of Post-Acute Covid-19 in Primary Care." BMJ 370:m3026.

8) Hellmuth, Joanna, T. Allen Barnett, Breton M. Asken, J. Daniel Kelly, Leonel Torres, Melanie L. Stephens, Bryan Greenhouse, Jeffrey N. Martin, Felicia C. Chow, Steven G. Deeks, Meredith Greene, Bruce L. Miller, Wesley Annan, Timothy J. Henrich, and Michael J. Peluso. 2021. "Persistent COVID-19-Associated Neurocognitive Symptoms in Non-Hospitalized Patients." Journal of NeuroVirology 27(1):191–95.

9) Hosseiny, Melina, Soheil Kooraki, Ali Gholamrezanezhad, Sravanthi Reddy, and Lee Myers. 2020. "Radiology Perspective of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Lessons From Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome." Cardiopulmonary Imaging 1078–82.

10) Kály-Kullai, K., M. Wittmann, Z. Noszticzius, and László Rosivall. 2020. "Can Chlorine Dioxide Prevent the Spreading of Coronavirus or Other Viral Infections? Medical Hypotheses." Physiology International 107(1):1–11.

11) Lam, Marco Ho Bun, Yun Kwok Wing, Mandy Wai Man Yu, Chi Ming Leung, Ronald C. W. Ma, Alice P. S. Kong, W. Y. So, Samson Yat Yuk Fong, and Siu Ping Lam. 2009. "Mental Morbidities and Chronic Fatigue in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Survivors." Archives of Internal Medicine 169(22):2142–47.

12) Lan, Lan, Dan Xu, Guangming Ye, Chen Xia, Shaokang Wang, Yirong Li, and Haibo Xu. 2020. "Positive RT-PCR Test Results in Patients Recovered from COVID-19." JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association 323(15):1502–3.

13) Lopez-Leon, Sandra, Talia Wegman-Ostrosky, Carol Perelman, Rosalinda Sepulveda, Paulina Rebolledo, Angelica Cuapio, and Sonia Villapol. 2021. "More than 50 Long-Term Effects of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." MedRxiv doi: 10.1101/2021.01.27.21250617.

14) Lubbers, Judith R., and Joseph R. Bianchine. 1984. "Effects of the Acute Rising Dose Administration of Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorate and Chlorite to Normal Healthy Adult Male Volunteers." Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology: Official Organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer 5:215—228.

15) Lubbers, Judith R., Sudha Chauhan, and Joseph R. Bianchine. 1981. "Controlled Clinical Evaluations of Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorite and Chlorate in Man." Toxicological Sciences 1(4):334–38.

16) Ma, Jui Wen, Bin Syuan Huang, Chu Wei Hsu, Chun Wei Peng, Ming Long Cheng, Jung Yie Kao, Tzong Der Way, Hao Chang Yin, and Shan Shue Wang. 2017. "Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(3).

17) Mandal, Swapna, Joseph Barnett, Simon E. Brill, Jeremy S. Brown, Emma K. Denneny, Samanjit S. Hare, Melissa Heightman, Toby E. Hillman, Joseph Jacob, Hannah C. Jarvis, Marc C. I. Lipman, Sindhu B. Naidu, Arjun Nair, Joanna C. Porter, Gillian S. Tomlinson, and John R. Hurst. 2021. "Long-COVID: A Cross-Sectional Study of Persisting Symptoms, Biomarker and Imaging Abnormalities Following Hospitalisation for COVID-19." Thorax 76(4):396–98.

18) Moldofsky, Harvey, and John Patcai. 2011. "Chronic Widespread Musculoskeletal Pain, Fatigue, Depression and Disordered Sleep in Chronic Post-SARS Syndrome; a Case-Controlled Study." BMC Neurology 11:1–7.

19) Nalbandian, Ani, Kartik Sehgal, Aakriti Gupta, Mahesh V. Madhavan, Claire McGroder, Jacob S. Stevens, Joshua R. Cook, Anna S. Nordvig, Daniel Shalev, Tejasav S. Sehrawat, Neha Ahluwalia, Behnood Bikdeli, Donald Dietz, Caroline Der Nigoghossian, Nadia Liyanage-Don, Gregg F. Rosner, Elana J. Bernstein, Sumit Mohan, Akinpelumi A. Beckley, David S. Seres, Toni K. Choueiri, Nir Uriel, John C. Ausiello, Domenico Accili, Daniel E. Freedberg, Matthew Baldwin, Allan Schwartz, Daniel Brodie, Christine Kim Garcia, Mitchell S. V. Elkind, Jean M. Connors, John P. Bilezikian, Donald W. Landry, and Elaine Y. Wan. 2021. "Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome." Nature Medicine 27(4):601–15.

20) Noszticzius, Zoltán, Maria Wittmann, Kristóf Kály-Kullai, Zoltán Beregvári, István Kiss, László Rosivall, and János Szegedi. 2013. “Chlorine Dioxide Is a Size-Selective Antimicrobial Agent.” PLoS ONE 8(11):e79157.

21) Ogata, Norio. 2012. "Inactivation of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin by Chlorine Dioxide: Oxidation of the Conserved Tryptophan 153 Residue in the Receptor-Binding Site." Journal of General Virology 93:2558–63.

22) Ogata, Norio, and Takanori Miura. 2021. "Inhibition of the Binding of Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus to Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 by Chlorine Dioxide." Annals of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutics 6(1):1–3.

23) Ogata, Norio, Miyusse Sakasegawa, Takanori Miura, Takashi Shibata, Yasuhiro Takigawa, Kouichi Taura, Kazuhiko Taguchi, Kazuki Matsubara, Kouichi Nakahara, Daisuke Kato, Koushirou Sogawa, and Hiroshi Oka. 2016. "Inactivation of Airborne Bacteria and Viruses Using Extremely Low Concentrations of Chlorine Dioxide Gas." Pharmacology 97(5–6):301–6.

24) da Rosa Mesquita, Rodrigo, Luiz Carlos Francelino Silva Junior, Fernanda Mayara Santos Santana, Tatiana Farias de Oliveira, Rafaela Campos Alcântara, Gabriel Monteiro Arnozo, Etvaldo Rodrigues da Silva Filho, Aisla Graciele Galdino dos Santos, Euclides José Oliveira da Cunha, Saulo Henrique Salgueiro de Aquino, and Carlos Dornels Freire de Souza. 2021. “Clinical Manifestations of COVID-19 in the General Population: Systematic Review.” The Central European Journal of Medicine 133(377):382.

25) Say, Daniela, Nigel Crawford, Sarah McNab, Danielle Wurzel, Andrew Steer, and Shidan Tosif. 2021. "Post-Acute COVID-19 Outcomes in Children with Mild and Asymptomatic Disease." The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health 5:e22–23.

26) Sisó-Almirall, Antoni, Pilar Brito-Zerón, Laura Conangla Ferrín, Belchin Kostov, Anna Moragas Moreno, Jordi Mestres, Jaume Sellarès, Gisela Galindo, Ramon Morera, Josep Basora, Antoni Trilla, and Manuel Ramos-Casals. 2021. “Long Covid-19: Proposed Primary Care Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosis and Disease Management.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(8):1–20.

27) Tarragón, Blanca, María Valdenebro, Maria Luisa Serrano, Alba Maroto, M. Rosario Llópez-Carratalá, Antonio Ramos, Esther Rubio, Ana Huerta, María Marques, and Jose Portolés. 2021. “Acute Kidney Failure in Patients Admitted Due to COVID-19.” Nefrologia 41(1):34–40.

28) Tay, Matthew Zirui, Chek Meng Poh, Laurent Rénia, Paul A. MacAry, and Lisa F. P. Ng. 2020. "The Trinity of COVID-19: Immunity, Inflammation and Intervention." Nature Reviews Immunology 20(6):363–74.

29) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. "Toxicological Review of Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorite." CAS Nos. 10049-04- 4 and 7758-19-2 (September):1–49.

30) Vink, Mark, and Alexandra Vink-Niese. 2020. "Could Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Be an Effective Treatment for Long Covid and Post Covid-19 Fatigue Syndrome? Lessons from the Qure Study for q-Fever Fatigue Syndrome." Healthcare 8(4):1–17.

31) Wostyn, Peter. 2021. "COVID-19 and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Is the Worst yet to Come?" Medical Hypotheses 146:110469.

32) Yu, Xiaoqi, Dong Wei, Yongyan Chen, Donghua Zhang, and Xinxin Zhang. 2020. "Retrospective Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Hospitalized Patients with Influenza-like Illness." Emerging Microbes and Infections 9:1–12.


Our Services and Policies

Authors should prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions given in the authors' guidelines. Manuscripts which do not conform to the format and style of the Journal may be returned to the authors for revision or rejected.

The Journal reserves the right to make any further formal changes and language corrections necessary in a manuscript accepted for publication so that it conforms to the formatting requirements of the Journal.

International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Analysis will publish 12 monthly online issues per year,IJMRA publishes articles as soon as the final copy-edited version is approved. IJMRA publishes articles and review papers of all subjects area.

Open access is a mechanism by which research outputs are distributed online, Hybrid open access journals, contain a mixture of open access articles and closed access articles.

International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Analysis initiate a call for research paper for Volume 04 Issue 10(October 2021).

1) Last Date of Submission : 25 October 2021.
2) Article published within a week.
3) Submit Article : editor@ijmra.in or Online

Why with us

International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Analysis is better then other journals because:-
1 : IJMRA only accepts original and high quality research and technical papers.
2 : Paper will publish immediately in current issue after registration.
3 : Authors can download their full papers at any time with digital certificate.

The Editors reserve the right to reject papers without sending them out for review.

Authors should prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions given in the authors' guidelines. Manuscripts which do not conform to the format and style of the Journal may be returned to the authors for revision or rejected. The Journal reserves the right to make any further formal changes and language corrections necessary in a manuscript accepted for publication so that it conforms to the formatting requirements of the Journal.

Indexed In
Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar