• editor@ijmra.in
  • ISSN[Online] : 2643-9875  ||  ISSN[Print] : 2643-9840

VOLUME 04 ISSUE 05 MAY 2021

COVID-19 And Smoking: A Cross-Sectional Study Done In Lebanon
1Najwa Baassiry, 2Marwa El-Hallak, 3Ali Alkhatib, 4Sami Tlais, 5Hassan S. Hajj Hussein
1,2,3Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese International University, Beirut, Lebanon
4,5Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese International University, Rayak, Lebanon
DOI : https://doi.org/10.47191/ijmra/v4-i5-08

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ABSTRACT:

Background:
to assess smoking habits and investigate any impact of smoking on COVID-19 susceptibility and symptom development.
Study design:
a cross-sectional study.
Methods:
A total of 1642 participants volunteered and took part in answering the questionnaire. Information about the level of knowledge on COVID-19, smoking habits, and COVID-19-related symptoms of participants were collected using an online questionnaire.
Results:
The study revealed that a very high percentage of the Lebanese population, especially males, are smokers. Smoking was independent of age and level of education; however, we detected a shift in preference among the younger smokers from cigarette to shisha smoking. We did not detect any influence of smoking, level of education, or geographical location on the probability of contracting COVID-19. COVID-19 patients who are also shisha smokers were significantly more likely to experience severe body pain and speaking and moving difficulty compared to cigarette smokers. In addition, infected shisha smokers who used artificial coal as a burning agent were more likely to experience loss of smell and taste compared to those that used natural coal.
Conclusions:
Shisha smokers, and especially those that use artificial coal, may be at a higher risk of developing more severe symptoms of COVID-19 and possibly other respiratory-related illnesses. The increased tendency of the younger generations to smoke shisha is alarming

KEYWORDS:

COVID-19, symptoms, smoking, shisha, cigarette, Lebanon

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VOLUME 04 ISSUE 05 MAY 2021

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