• editor@ijmra.in
  • ISSN[Online] : 2643-9875  ||  ISSN[Print] : 2643-9840


Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Green Synthesized Copper Nanoparticle of Parthenium Hysterophorus L.
1Archana Rai, 2Rohit Lall
1,2,1,2 Department of Molecular and Cellular Engineering, Jacob School of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad, India.
DOI : https://doi.org/10.47191/ijmra/v4-i2-01

Google Scholar Download Pdf

Natural products are valuable and well known for their biological activities. In the current scenario, the research and analysis of plant leaf extract and nanoparticles synthesis with their biological activities has been expended significantly. For the synthesis of nanoparticles, Copper is the preferred metal among other metals due to its reported use in medical field as antimicrobial agents and its lethality. The aim of the present work is to assess antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanolic leaf extracts and aqueous leaf extract mediated copper nanoparticles of Parthenium hysterophorus. Study also revealed the comparative analysis between methanolic leaf extracts and copper nanoparticles. Synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) was confirmed by the change of color of aqueous extract, which were further confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results indicated that copper nanoparticles have great antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus rather than methanolic leaf extract. These studies confirmed that copper nanoparticles are capable to rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and hence has a great potential in the development of antimicrobial agents. Based on the DPPH, copper nanoparticles found to be good antioxidant when compared to methanolic leaf extract. Furthermore cells viability assay was also done against copper nanoparticles. These results concluded that copper nanoparticles are good source of therapeutic agent and applications of copper nanoparticles based on these findings may lead to valuable discoveries in various fields such as medical devices and antimicrobial systems.


Parthenium hysterophorus, Copper nanoparticles, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, cell viability assay


1) Gnanavel, I. & Natarajan, S.K. (2013) Parthenium hysterophorus L.: A Major Threat to Natural and Agro Eco-systems in India. International Journal of Agriculture, environment & Biotechnology, 6(2): 261-269.

2) Kaur, M., Aggarwal, N.K., Kumar, V. & Dhiman, R. (2014) Effects and Management of Parthenium hysterophorus: A Weed of Global Significance. International Scholarly Research Notices, Article ID 368647, 12 pages.

3) Patel, S. (2011) Harmful and beneficial aspects of Parthenium hysterophorus: an update 3 Biotech. 1(1): 1–9. Published online 2011 Apr 27. doi: 10.1007/s13205-011-0007-7

4) Sushilkumar. (2014) Spread, menace and management of Parthenium. Indian Journal of Weed. Science, 46(3): 205– 219.

5) Tapwal,A., Nisha, Garg, S., Gautam, N. & Kumar, R. (2011) In Vitro Antifungal Potency of Plant Extracts Against Five Phytopathogens. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 6(54),1093-1098.

6) Kumar, S., Chashoo, G., Saxena, A.K., Pandey, A.K. (2013) Parthenium hysterophorus: a probable source of anticancer, antioxidantandant i-HIVagents. Biomed.Res., Int. 1–11.

7) Mersie, W. & Singh, M. (1988) Effect of phenolic acids and ragweed Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) extracts on tomato (Lycoperscion esculentum) Growth and Nutrient and chlorophyll content. Weed Science, 36: 278-281.

8) Shehzad, M. Hussain, S., Mubeen, K., Shoaib, M., Sarwar, N., Javeed, H.M.R., Ahmad, A., & Khalid, S. (2016) Allelopathic Effect of Santa Maria (Parthenium hysterophrous) Mulch on Growth and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max). Planta daninha, 34(4).

9) Maharjan, S., Shrestha, B.B., Jha, P.K., & Academy, R.M. (2007) Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on seedling growth of some cultivated and wild herbaceous species. Scientific World 5, 33– 39. 10. Ge, Y., Priester J. H., Van De Werfhorst, L. C., Walker, S. L., Nisbet, R. M. & An, Y. J. (2014) Soybean plants modify metal oxide nanoparticle effects on soil bacterial communities. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 13489–13496.

10) Niraimathi, K. L., Sudha, V., Lavanya, R.,& Brindha, P. (2013) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities. Colloids Surf. B, Biointerfaces, 102 (2013), pp. 288- 291

11) Callaway, R.M. & Aschehoug, E.T. (2000) Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasion. Science. 290: 521–523.

12) Feresin, G.E., Tapia, A. A.& Bustos, D.A.(2000). Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants from SanJuan, Argentina. Fitoterapia, 71,429–432.

13) Bajwa, R., Khalid, A., Tabinda,& Cheema, S. (2003) Antifungal activity of allelopathic plant extract III: Growth response of some pathogenic fungi to aqueous extract of parthenium hysterophorus. Pakistan Journal of Plant Pathology 2(3): 145- 146, 2003

14) Ahmad, J., Ibrahim, M.M., Baif. A., & Qureshi. M. I. (2016) Standardization of DNA extraction from invasive alien weed Parthenium hysterophorus African Journal of Biotechnology, 15(22), 1035-1040.

15) Patel,S.,(2011) Harmful and beneficial aspects of Parthenium hysterophorus: an update.

16) Raghu, J.D., Veerashekar,T., Kuppast,I.J., Dharshan,S. &,Ravi,M.C.(2014). A review on Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Int.J.Univ.Pharm.BioSci.3,110–120.

17) Swaminathan, C., Rai, R.S.V. & Sureshi, K.K. (1990) Allelopathic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. on germination and seedling growth of a few multipurpose trees and arable crops. The International Tree Crops Journal. 6: 143-150

18) Auld, B.A. & R.W. Medd (1987) Weeds, an illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne- Sydney 255 pp.

19) Singh, H.P., Kohli, R.K.,& Batish, D.R. (2001) Allelopathy in agro-ecosystems: an overview. J. Crop Prod. 4, 1–41.

20) Chung, M., Rahuman, A.A., Marimuthu, S., Kirthi, A.V. Anbarasan,K., Padmini,P., & Rajakumar,G.(,2017) Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata leaves extract and their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities Exp Ther Med 2017 Jul; 14(1): 18–24.

21) Hase.G.J., Bharati,K.T., Deshmukh,K.K., Phatangre,N.D, Rahane,A., Dokhe,S.,(2016) EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH ejpmr, 2016,3(5), 241-242

22) Thandapani, K., Kathiravan, M., Namasivayam, E., Padiksan, I.A., Natesan, G., Tiwari, M., Giovanni & B., Perumal, V. (2017) Enhanced larvicidal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic efficacy of TiO2 nanohybrids green synthesized using the aqueous leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.

23) Anwar, M.F., Yadav, D., Kapoor, S., Chander, J. & Samim, M. (2015) Comparison of antibacterial activity of Ag nanoparticles synthesized from leaf extract of Parthenium hystrophorus L in aqueous media and Gentamicin sulphate: invitroDrug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 41(1).

24) Rajiv, P., Rajeshwari, S., & Venckatesh, R. (2013) Bio-fabrication of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. and its size-dependent antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogens. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc.112:384-7.

25) Kaur, A., Batish, D.R., Kaur, S., Singh, H.P. & Kohli, R.K. (2017) Phenological behaviour of Parthenium hysterophorus in response to climatic variations according to the extended BBCH scale. Ann Appl Biol, 171: 316–326.

26) Navie, S.C., McFadyen, R.E., Panetta, F.D. & Adkins, S.W. (1996) The Biology of Australian Weeds -Parthenium hysterophorus L. Plant Protection Quaterly 11(2):75-88.

27) Chen, S.B., Ding,W.Y., Qiu, J.B., Wang, G.Y., Zhou, Z.M., Chen, J.F., Al, W.M., Wang, C.Y. & Xie, Q.L. (2010) The genetic diversity of the Mangrove Kandelia obovata in China revealed by ISSR analysis. Pak. J. Bot., 42: 3755–3764.

28) Jabeen, R., P. Prentis, T. Anjum & S.W. Adkins (2015) Genetic structure of invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus in Australia and Pakistan. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 17: 327‒333.

29) Kulkarni, V.D. & Kulkarni, P. S. (2013) Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Ocimum. Int. J. Chemi. Stud., 1(3):1– 4.

30) Datta, S. & Saxena, D.B., (2001) Pesticidal properties of parthenin (from Parthenium hysterophorus) and related Compounds. Pest Manag Sci. 57:95-101.

31) Kirby, W.M.M., Bauer, A.W., Sherris, J.C. & Turck, M. (1966) Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol., 45 (6):493.

32) Tempone, A.G., Treiger Borborema, S.E., de Andrade, Jr. H.F., de Amorim Gualda, N.C., Yogi, A., Salerno Carvalho, C., Bachiega, D., Lupo, F.N., Bonotto, S.V., Fischer, D.C.H. (2005) Antiprotozoal activity of Brazilian plant extracts from isoquinoline alkaloid-producing families. Phytomedicine 12: 382-390.

33) Melville, G.W., Siegler, J.C. & Marshall, P.W.M. (2017). The effects of d-aspartic acid supplementation in resistancetrained men over a three month training period: A randomised controlled trial. PLoS ONE 12(8): e0182630. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182630

34) Doyle, J.J. (1991) DNA protocols for plants. In: G. Hewitt, A.W.B. Johnson, and J.P.W. Young (eds.), Molecular Techniques in Taxonomy. NATO ASI Series H, Cell Biology, 57: 283–29.

35) Welsh, J. & McClelland, M. (1990) Fingerprlntlng genomes uslng PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucl Acids Res., 18 7213- 7218.

36) Williams, J. G. K, Kubelk, A. R., Livak, K. J. , Rafalski, J. A. & Tingey, S. V. (1990) DNA polymorphism amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nuclic Acids Res. 18: 6531-6535.

37) Sneath, P.H.A. & Sokal, R. R. (1963) Numeric taxonomy: the principles and practice of numerical classification.

38) Pandey, H.P. (2013). A comprehensive approach to the phenological modelling and phenoformulation of plants. Bioherald 3(1): June 2013 pp. 41- 46.

39) Achola, KJ, et al. (1998). Bronchodilating and uterine activities of Ageratum conyzoides extract. Pharmaceutical Biology, 36(2):93-96.

40) Adiguzel, A., Gulluce, M., Sengul, M., Ogutcu, Sahin, F. and Karaman, I. (2005). Antimicrobial effect of Ocimum basillicum (Labiatae) extract. Turk.J. Biol, 29:156-160.

41) Ahamed, M., Akhtar, M.J., Siddiqui, M.A., Ahmad, J., Musarrat, J., Al-Khedhairy, A.A., Al-Salhi, M.S. and Alrokayan, S.A. (2011). Oxidative stress mediated apoptosis is induced by nickel ferrite nanoparticles in cultured a549 cells. Toxico., 283: 101-118.

42) Ahamed, M., Siddiqui, M.A., Akhtar, M.J., Ahmad, I., Pant, A.B. and Alhadlaq, H.A. (2010). Genotoxic potential of copper oxide nanoparticles in human lung epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 396:578–583.

43) Akhtar, M.S., Ali, M.M. and Mir, S.R. (2006). Chemical composition of essential oil of Lantana indica Roxb. leaves. J. Essential Oil Res., 18:611-612.

44) Aletor, V.A. and Aladetimi, O.O. (1989). Compositional evaluation of some cowpea varieties and some underuti-lized edible legumes in Nigeria. Die Nahru.,33:999-1007.

45) An, K. and Somerjai, G.A. (2012). Size and shape control of metal nanoparticles for reaction selectivity in catalysis. Chem Cat Chem., 4: 1512-1524.

46) ASTM (2008). Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method: Time-kill test protocol. ASTM 2315(03):3.

47) Atkin, S. (2004) In: The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants.(Ed.): J.W. Kadercit. Flowering Plants Dicotyledons lamiales. Spri.-Ver, Berlin, 7:461.

48) Baehrecke EH (2005). Autophagy: Dual roles in life and death. Nat Rev Mol Cell,6:505-510.

49) Barillet S, Jugan ML, Laye M, Leconte Y, Herlin-Boime N, Reynaud C, (2010). In vitro evaluation of sic nanoparticles impact on A549 pulmonary cells: Cyto-genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Toxicol Lett.; 198:324–330.

50) Bedford, E.E., Spadavecchia, J., Pradier, C.M. and Gu, F.X. (2012). Surface plasmon resonance biosensors incorporating gold nanoparticles. Macromol Biosci.,12:724-739.

51) Blois, M.S. (1958). Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nat., 187(4617): 1199-1200.

52) Chandran, S.P., Chaudhary, M., Pasricha, R., Ahmad, A. and Sastry, M. (2006). Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using aloe vera plant extract. Biotechnol. Prog., 23:577-583.

53) Chin, Y.W., Balunas, M.J., Chai, H.B. and Kinghorn, A.D. (2006). Drug discovery from natural sources. AAPS Journal, 8: 239- 253.

54) Cui, Y., Liu, B., Xie, J., Xu, P., Habte-Tsion, H.M. and Zhang, Y. (2014). The effect of emodin on cytotoxicity, apoptosis and antioxidant capacity in the hepatic cells of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).Fish Shellfish. Immunol, 38:74–79.

55) Curtis, A.C., Duff, D.G., Edwards, P.P., Jefferson, D.A., Johnson Kirkland, A.I. and Wallace, A.S. (1998). J. Phys Chem., 92:2211.

56) Dan, X.M., Zhang, T.W., Li, Y.W. and Li, A.X. (2013). Immune responses and immune-related gene expression profile in orange-spotted grouper after immunization with cryptocaryon irritans vaccine. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 34:885–891.

57) Dharamaraj,N., Viswanathamurthi, P. and Natarajan, K. (2001) Ruthenium (II) complexes containing bidentate Schiff bases and their antifungal activity. Trans. Met. Chem., 26:105–109.

58) Dickson, R.A., Amponash, I. K., Annan, K. and Fleischer, T.C. (2014). Nutritive potential of a polyherbal preparartion from some selected Ghanaian Herbs. J.Nat.Prod.Plant Resour.,4(3):77-81.

59) Doane, T.L. and Burda, C. (2012). The unique role of nanoparticles in nanomedicine: imaging, drug delivery and therapy, Chem Soc. Rev., 41: 2885-2911.

60) Du L, S.S., Wang, G., Jia, H., Liu, K.J., Zhao, B. (2013). Mechanism and cellular kinetic studies of the enhancement of antioxidant activity by using surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles. Chem Eur J,19: 1281-1287.

61) Du L, S.S., Wang, G., Jia, H., Liu, K.J., Zhao, B., et al (2013). Mechanism and cellular kinetic studies of the enhancement of antioxidant activity by using surface-functionalized gold nanoparticles. Chem Eur J,19: 1281-1287.

62) Ene-Obong, H.N. and Carnovale, E. (1992). A comparison of the proximate, mineral and amino acid composition of some known and lesser known legumes in Nige-ria. Food Chem.,43:169-175.

63) Gallup, W.D. and Reder, R.E. (1943). Sprouted cowpea as a source of protein and vitamins. Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment, Station, Stillwater. Academy of Science,1943:33-56.

64) Geethalakshmi, R. and Sarada, D.V. (2012). Gold and silver nanoparticles from Trianthema decandra; synthesis, chararcterization and antimicrobial properties. Int.J.Nanomedicine, 7:5378-5384.

65) Haruna, S.S., Ahmad, O. and Titilayo, J.O. (2015). Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of Parthenium leaf. J. Invest Biochem., 4(2):58-60.

66) He, Y., Du Z., Lv, H., Jia, Q., Tang, Z., Zheng, X., Zhang K. and Zhoa F. (2013). Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Crysanthemun morifolium Raman extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel. Int J. Nanomedicine., 8: 1809- 1815.

67) Heinlaan M, Ivask A, Blinova I, Dubourguier HC, Kahru A (2008) Toxicity of nanosized and bulk ZnO, CuO and TiO2 to bacteria Vibrio fischeri and crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus. Chemo., 71:1308–1316.

68) Jambunathan, R., Singh, U. and Subramani, V. (1984).Grain quality of sorghom, pearl millet,pigeon pea and chicken pea. International Crops Research Institute for semi-arid Tropics, Pat., India: 1:67-89.

69) Javidiqbalpandith (2011). Antifungal activity and phytochemical screening of Parthenium species from northern Indi., World J. Pharm & Pharma. Sci., 1(2):810-819.

70) Karlsson HL, Gustafsson J, Cronholm P, Moller L (2009) Size-dependent toxicity of metal oxide particles–a comparison between nano- and micrometer size. Toxicol Lett., 188: 112–118.

71) Kirby, W.M.M., Bauer, A.W., Sherris, J.C. and Turck, M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol., 45 (6):493.

72) Koleva, I.I, Beek, T.A.V, et al. (2002).Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods. Phytochemical analysis, 13:8-17.

73) Kulkarni, V.D. and Kulkarni, P. S. (2013). Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Ocimum. Int. J. Chemi. Stud., 1(3):1–4.

74) Kumar, B., Smita, K., Cumbal, L. and Debut, A. (2016). Fiscus carica (Fig) fruit mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant activity: a comparison of thermal and ultrasonication approach. Bio Nano Sci., 6:15-21.

75) Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, L.A. and Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biologi. Chem., 193:265–275.

76) Luo, C., Zhang, Y. and Wang, Y. (2005). Palladium nanoparticles in poly (ethyleneglycol): the efficient and recyclable catalyst for Heck reaction. J. of Mol Catalysis A: Chemical. 229 (1-2): 7-12.

77) Manda, R.M. and Seru, G. (2015). Evaluation of Parthenium hysterophous for antiulcer activity in experimental Rat, Int. J. Pharm Bio Sci., 5(1):01-04.

78) Mittle, A.K., Kumar, B.S. and Banerjee, U.C. (2014). Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles: elucidation of prospective mechanism and therapeutic potential. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 415:39-47.

79) Monga, A. and Pal, B. (2015). Improved catalytic activity and surface electro-kinetics of bimetallic Au-Ag core-shell nanocomposites. New J. Chem., 39(1):304-313.

80) Morris, D. L. (1948). The qualitative determination of carbo- hydrate with Dreywood’s anthrone reagent. Science, 107:254–255.

81) Mossman, T. (1983). Rapid Colorimetric Assay for Cellular Growth and Survival: Application to Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assays. J. Immunol Methods, 65:55-63.

82) Nakache, E., Poulain, N., Candau, F., Orecchioni, A.M. and Irach, J.M. (1999) Biopolymer and polymer nanoparticles and their biomedical application In: Nalwa H.S. editor. Handbook of nanostructure material and nanotechnology. Academic Press: Yew York, 557-635.

83) Niraimathi, K.L., Sudha, V., Lavanya, R. and Brindha, P. (2013). Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera Sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities. Colloids Surf B: Biointer., 102: 288-291.

84) Niska, K., Santos-Martinez, M.J., Radomski, M.W. and Inkielewicz-Stepniak, I. (2015). CuO nanoparticles induce apoptosis by impairing the antioxidant defense and detoxification systems in the mouse Hippocampal HT22 cell line: Protective effect of crocetin. Toxicol In Vitro, 29: 663–671.

85) Olaofe, O., Umar, Y.O. and Adediran, G.O. (1993). The effect of nematicides on the nutritive value and functional properties of cowpea seeds (Vignaunguiculata L. Walp). Food Chem., 46:337-341.

86) Patel, R.M, Patel , N.J, (2011). In vitro antioxidant activity of coumarin compounds by DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Journal of advanced pharmacy education & research, 1:52-68.

87) Pawar, D., Shaikh, S., Shulaksana, D. and Kanawade, R. (2014). Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Gloriosa superbaL leaf extract, Int J. Pharm & Pharmceu Res., 203-209.

88) Qi, Z.H., Liu, Y.F., Luo, S.W., Chen, C.X., Liu, Y. and Wang, W.N. (2013). Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of tumor suppressor protein p53 from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides in response to temperature stress. Fish shellfish Immunol., 35: 1466–1476.

89) Ranjitham, A.M., Suja, R., Caroling, G. and Tiwari, S. (2013). In vitro evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer activities and characterization of Brassica Oleracea. Var. Bortrytis. L Synthesized Silver nanoparticles. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci., 5(4): 239-251.

90) Sasidharan, S., Chen, Y., Sarvanam, K., Sundram, K.M. and Yoga, Latha L. (2011). Extraction, Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Plants extracts, Afr. J. Tradit. Complement Altern. Med., 8:1-10.

91) Song, J.Y. and Kim, B.S. (2009). Rapid biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant extracts. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng., 32:79-84.

92) Sujitha, M.V. and Kannan, S. (2013). Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using citrus fruits (Citrus lemon, Citrus reticulates and Citrus sinesis) aqueous extract and its characterization. Spectrochim Acta A.Mol Biomol Spectrosci., 102:15-23.

93) Swarnalatha, Y., Krishnan, D. and Rajasekar, S.P.V. (2013). Antibacterial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles from Sphaeranthus amaranthoides. Int J.Pharm Sci., 5(4):594-596.

94) Tilaki, R.M., Irajizad, A. and Mahadevi, S.M. (2007). Appli. Phys., A88:415.

95) Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin M, Mazur M, Telser J. (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol., 39: 44–84.

96) Vera, L.M. and Migaud, H. (2009). Continuous high light intensity can induce retinal degeneration in Atlantic salmon, Atlantic cod and European sea bass. Aq.cult., 296: 150–158


Our Services and Policies

Authors should prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions given in the authors' guidelines. Manuscripts which do not conform to the format and style of the Journal may be returned to the authors for revision or rejected.

The Journal reserves the right to make any further formal changes and language corrections necessary in a manuscript accepted for publication so that it conforms to the formatting requirements of the Journal.

International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Analysis will publish 12 monthly online issues per year,IJMRA publishes articles as soon as the final copy-edited version is approved. IJMRA publishes articles and review papers of all subjects area.

Open access is a mechanism by which research outputs are distributed online, Hybrid open access journals, contain a mixture of open access articles and closed access articles.

International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Analysis initiate a call for research paper for Volume 04 Issue 03(March 2021).

1) Last Date of Submission : 26 March 2021.
2) Article published within a week.
3) Submit Article : editor@ijmra.in or Online

Why with us

International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Analysis is better then other journals because:-
1 : IJMRA only accepts original and high quality research and technical papers.
2 : Paper will publish immediately in current issue after registration.
3 : Authors can download their full papers at any time with digital certificate.

The Editors reserve the right to reject papers without sending them out for review.

Authors should prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions given in the authors' guidelines. Manuscripts which do not conform to the format and style of the Journal may be returned to the authors for revision or rejected. The Journal reserves the right to make any further formal changes and language corrections necessary in a manuscript accepted for publication so that it conforms to the formatting requirements of the Journal.

Indexed In
Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar Avatar